1. The Venus of Melos.
Newark, N. J.
The ) Newark Museum Association
2 The Newark Museum Association
The Most Beautiful Goddess Venus.
Almost a hundred years ago, workmen were dig-
ging up the ground in a cave on the little island of
Melos, not far from the coast of Greece, and found
this statue, where it had been placed many hundreds
of years before.
In that early time the Greeks were very fond of all
beautiful things and they carved, often with very
great skill, statues of the gods and goddesses they
loved and worshipped. They built large and magnifi-
cent temples of many-colored marbles in which to
place these statues, where they burned incense before
them and sacrificed young animals in their honor.
Loving all beauty, it was the goddess of beauty
they loved most of all, and they said to each other :
"We must carve the most beautiful statue we can for
the goddess we love the most." It was this statue
among many others, that they then carved.
A French official at Constantinople heard of its
great beauty and said : "I must take that statue as a
present to^my king." He went to Melos, bought it
abcf :tqcjk tt to Paris. The king, Louis XVIII, was
pleaded. at jeteiving so beautiful a gift. He put it into
at- Paris, called the Louvre, where his peo-
ple could see it every day.
There it still stands. Many copies of it have been
made in bronze, marble and plaster, so that people all
Venus of Melos
over the world can see it and now we in Newark
No one knows who took the statue out of its temple
and put it in the cave. It is thought that, at a time
when most men in that region came to prize the
value of marble as mere stone or as something they
could burn to make lime, more than their gods and
the beauty that had been carved into statues, some
one, who still loved beautiful things, hid this Venus
in a cave, that she might not be destroyed or carried
away. All this happened over a thousand years ago.
The statue is thought to be now about two thousand
Venus is the goddess of love and beauty and the
mother of little Cupid. She was born on the crest of
a wave. The ocean nymphs at once fell in love with
the beautiful baby and took her to their home
beneath the waves, where they cared for her ten-
derly until she grew up.
When she was old enough to leave them and go to
Mount Olympus, the home of all the gods, the
Nymphs chose a beautiful shell, large enough for her
to stand in and called upon Triton and Nereids, serv-
ants of Neptune the Sea-god, to draw it over the
water to the shore. The wind goddess, Zephyr, blew
a gentle breeze to waft her along, and thus she came,
not to Mount Olympus, but to the Island of Cyprus.
4 The Newark Museum Association
Every one on the shore bowed down before her great
beauty and the dwellers on Cyprus admired her so
much that they made sacred to her their cities with
their temples and altars and their groves.
She lived for a time on Cyprus, but reached Olym-
pus at last. Here she became the wife of Vulcan, and
was always escorted by Cupids and Graces when she
But after some years she left the home of the gods
and came down to earth to show her beauty to man-
kind. Being the goddess of beauty and love, she
gave her aid to all lovers and often sent her little
son Cupid to shoot his arrows into the hearts of obsti-
nate youths and maidens to make them fall in love.
Venus had a kind heart and always meant to make
people happy, but sometimes she made mistakes.
Indeed, she was once so vain that she caused an
entire city to be destroyed.
It all came about at a wedding at which Venus and
many other gods and goddesses were guests. An
ugly goddess, however, had not been invited and, to
cause discord among those who were enjoying them-
selves so much, she threw among them an apple, on
which were written the words, "For the fairest."
Of course each goddess thought the apple was
meant for her and each tried to pick it up- and then
the trouble began!
Venus of Melos
All agreed at last that Juno or Minerva or Venus
should have it, but no one could say which. It was
decided that they must go to a beautiful shepherd
named Paris, who tended his flocks on Mt. Ida, and
ask him to select the fairest.
The three goddesses set forth, each eager to appear
beautiful to the judge. Minerva came in glittering
armor and promised the youth great wisdom if she
won the prize. Juno, the queen of the gods, put on
her royal robes and offered him endless wealth and
power if he would award the apple to her. Venus
buckled about her the magic belt which made every-
one unable to resist the charm of her beauty. She
whispered to Paris that if he chose her she would
give him a bride as fair as herself. Paris did not
consider long. He was overcome by her great
beauty and by the thought of a bride as beautiful.
He handed her the apple, and thus gained the hatred
of Minerva and Juno.
The promised bride was Helen, fairest of all
women, and already the wife of King Menelaus. As
Venus had promised, she left Menelaus and went
with Paris, who proved to be a son of King Priam, to
Troy, his father's famous city. Menelaus called on
his fellow kings of Greece to help him bring Helen
back. They besieged Troy for ten years, and at last
captured and burnt it. And thus Venus, through the
lovely Helen, caused a fair city to be destroyed.
6 The Newark Museum Association
If the arms of this statue of Venus had not been
broken off when it was hidden in the cave, how
would they appear? Perhaps the goddess would have
been leaning on a shield or holding up her drapery;
no one knows. They may have been raised to smooth
her hair before setting forth to win the golden apple,
for the poet Cowper tells us,
"Venus oft with anxious care
Adjusted twice a single hair."
Map of Greece and the ^gean Sea, showing
the location of Melos.
Venus of Melos
The Museum's Collection of Sculptures.
The collection of casts of the Newark Museum
Association was bought of P. P. Caproni and Brother,
of Boston, Mass. There are sixty pieces and they
represent several periods and schools of sculpture,
from ancient Assyrian to Italian Rennaissance. They
were installed in May, 1913, in one of the rooms on
the fourth floor of the Library Building, which was
decorated especially for the purpose by the painter
Mr. Max Weber of New York. Other casts about
which stories are to be published are :
King Assur-bani-pal and his Lion Hunt.
The Greek Charioteer.
The Hero Achilles.
Greek Memorials to the Dead.
Brutus, an Untrue Friend.
The Parthenon, a Greek Temple.
The Italian Singers.
Castor, the Horse-tamer.
THE VENUS OF MELOS
Stories of the Statues
2. The Lion Hunt
Newark, N. J.
The (Newark Museum Association
Ashurbanipal and His Lion Hunt
Over two thousand years ago there ruled over
Assyria, a country to the east of Egypt, a king
named Ashurbanipal. His father, whose name was
Esarhaddon, died when Ashurbanipal was a young
man and left him his country to rule over. It was
a hard task to rule a country at that time, for all
kings then liked to go to war to show their bra-
very. And Assyria had many enemies on every
side. The most dreaded of these were the Medes
and the Babylonians.
Like all the other kings, Ashurbanipal was war-
like, too. He was not content to fight only when
enemies came to attack him. He made long war
journeys into other countries. He went to Egypt
and capcured Memphis and Thebes more than once;
he marched into Babylonia, also, and fought against
his own brother. He was cruel in victories. It is
said that when he captured other kings or princes
of high birth, he would harness them to his war
chariot and let them pull him many hundreds of
miles on his way back to Assyria.
The Lion Hunt
But, unlike other warlike kings of those days,
Ashurbanipal did much for his country besides con-
quering other lands. He and his father were great
builders. Esarhaddon, his father, had ten palaces
built and thirty-six temples. Ashurbanipal did not
build as many; but he did erect a palace at Nine-
veh which was very famous. He had it made of
bricks. There is no building stone in Assyria,
which is a flat, sandy country without many hills.
Ashurbanipal had earth heaped up to form a huge
mound on which to set his palace, so that it would
be higher than all the houses round about, and
could be seen from a great distance. His prisoners
of war built his hill and did the brick laying on
his palace. In his day all prisoners of war became
slaves and worked for their captors. Among these
prisoners were many Arab chieftains.
On the top floor of this palace Ashurbanipal ar-
ranged his library. Not many people could read at
that time and there were not many books. Ashur-
banipal loved books and had his slaves copy many
of the old ones of his kingdom and some of the
books he had taken in war from the Babylonians.
They were copied, not as we do it now by printing ;
but were scratched on prepared skins with a reed.
The walls of the rooms of his palace he deco-
rated with marble statues and carved reliefs. And,
to add to his own fame, most of these pictured
events in his own life, showing his bravery in war,
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his magnificent feasts at court, or his elaborate
It is mostly from these carvings on Ashurbani-
pal's walls, and on walls elsewhere in Assyria,
that we know so much about the Assyrians of those
times. If histories were written then, they have not
come down to us. We know how they lived, what
their furniture, tools and clothing were like and how
they looked. We know about their religion, their
daily habits and their wars, and even much about
their thoughts and superstitions.
In the first relief, of the king and queen banquet-
ing in a garden, we can learn much about the king
and his people. We see the king reclining upon a
couch while the queen sits upon a chair. The
chairs and table were of bronze, inlaid with ivory
and lapis lazuli, a beautiful green stone. We can
see the pattern on the queen's robe and the fringe
of the coverlet covering the king's knee. In all
Assyrian carvings the legs of the furniture have
always the same finish, the claw of a lion or ante-
lope resting upon a fir-cone. Only kings, queens or
The Lion Hunt
gods sat on chairs; common people sat on stools.
We can see that slaves of the king are all smooth-
shaven. Only kings and princes wore beards, and
were so proud of them that they always curled
them elaborately. Slaves behind the king are fan-
ning him diligently to keep him cool.
We know, too, from this scene that Ashurbani-
pal was a cruel king. If you will look closely at
the next to the last tree on the left side you will
see the head of one of his enemies tied to a branch.
It must be a victory over one of his foes that
Ashurbanipal is celebrating, and the head reminds
him pleasantly of his conquest. A slave at the end
of the line is making music on a harp.
The most famous of the carvings that covered
the walls of the palace at Nineveh are those of the
lion hunt. From them we know that Ashurbanipal
was very fond of hunting lions and that he went
6 The Newark Museum Association
about it more as if he were going to fight a power-
ful human enemy than a poor lion.
Everyone is up at sunrise ready to start, for they
have a long way to go before they reach the place
where the lions are. The slaves must first get the
chariot ready for the king's use, sharpen the arrows
and put them in the quiver tied to the side of the
car. They must also stand a second bow inside, in
case the first one breaks. Look at the chariot and
you can see all these things.
When all is ready, the king enters his chariot
and leads the procession. Then come princes and
nobles in their chariots, then many lancers on
horseback and many slaves on foot leading dogs,
and others leading mules laden with food and tents.
Then come men with the horses that the king and
nobles will use in the hunt.
When they find a lion the king will aim at it
from the chariot; but that is dangerous sport, for
the chariot is open at the back and the lion can
easily spring upon the king. But Ashurbanipal is
brave and surely would like to meet a lion almost
single-handed. In one of our reliefs we see him
about to shoot an arrow from his chariot.
The next day, after camping in the lion country,
the king and nobles mount their horses, as we see
them in the next carving, and the hunt begins.
Slaves rush about, find and arouse a lion, and then
the huntsmen go after it. Sometimes, if their
arrows miss or fail to kill they must follow the
The Lion Hunt
wounded animal a great distance. One after the
other king and nobles shoot their arrows into him
until he can run no further and falls dead.
When the chase is over the king gives thanks
for his success to the great god Asshur, as we can
see in the fourth relief. Slaves place the lion in
the center of the group; the king takes a cup of
wine from the priest, touches it with his lips and
pours the wine over the lion while musicians, stand-
ing by, play on their harps a hymn of praise.
Ashurbanipal is very proud. He will now drive
home in his chariot and his people will rush to the
gates of Nineveh to meet him and will cry out that
he is a great king. And when Ashurbanipal gets
into his palace, he will call his chief builder to him
and say ; " I, Ashurbanipal, wish you to carve upon
marble the events of this great day." And it was
done, and that is how it happens that we know so
much about one of King Ashurbanipal's lion hunts.
The sculptors of Greece were able to carve much
more beautiful statues than the Assyrians for they
8 The Newark Museum Association
were more educated and full of the love of beauti-
ful things. The Venus of Melos, as we know, is
one of their most beautiful statues.
Ashurbanipal's sculptors, however, were able to
carve better than the ones who lived under the
kings before him. See the vines and palm trees
under which the king and queen are banqueting.
Each leaf and bunch of grapes is very carefully
carved. And in the hunting scenes how much
movement there is! How fast the horses are gal-
loping! The king in the chariot is in action, too,
for he is about to shoot his arrow. Sculptors be-
fore this time could only carve people who were
seated or standing still.
About twenty years after Ashurbanipal had died,
Nineveh was captured by his great enemies, the
Medes and Babylonians. The palace with its
large library and its carvings was destroyed. As
no one cared to rebuild, it lay in ruins many hun-
dreds of years until sand blew over it and trees
and bushes grew over it and it was entirely buried.
In 1852 English explorers dug away the earth to
see what the old palace was like. We can still see
some of the walls and the plan of the rooms; but
those four carvings and others were taken to Eng-
land and put in the British Museum in London.
Many copies of them have been made in marble
and plaster, and from some of the latter we here
in Newark can see and read the story of King
Ashurbanipal and his Lion Hunt.
JAN 10 M
Stories of the Statues
3. The Greek Charioteer
A x i s >T n A i K n
SH.i > T O
- ' . \ ' -. "\' x
The Charioteer of Delphi. Bronze probably by Calamis, fifth century
B. C. Found in 1896 and now in the Museum at Delphi
. Newark, N. J.
Tha Newark Museum Association
The Greek Charioteer
In the central part of Greece in the province of
Phocis was once a large and beautiful city, called
Delphi. Its years of growth and importance extended
from about 1000 B. C., to about 400 A. D. As time
went on it was destroyed by many wars and its treas-
ures and statues were carried off, one after another,
by its conquerors. Then its people left it ; earth, trees
and bushes came to cover it, and finally the new vil-
lage of Kastri was built where it had stood.
Twenty years ago, students of ancient Greece came
from France and began to dig out what was left of the
old city. Their workmen uncovered the walls of large
palaces and of magnificent temples and monuments,
tombs and many statues.
One of the most beautiful of these statues thus
found is the "Charioteer of Delphi." The chariot
and horses were broken to tiny bits and could not be
put together. The left arm of the charioteer, too,
was missing. But even broken, it is still one of the
most beautiful of the few beautiful statues, made by
the ancient Greeks, that have come down to us. It is
kept with great care in the Museum at Delphi. In the
Newark Museum there is a copy of it in plaster that
we can see and enjoy.
The story of the way this statue came to Delphi is
Delphi was one of the favorite cities of the Greeks.
In it there was a rich temple, sacred to Apollo, one of
the gods they loved the most. Apollo, they thought,
was able to tell them what was going to happen. He
could tell kings, for example, whether or no they
would win battles ; and to any inquirer whether he
would be rich and happy, or poor and miserable. The
2 The Newark Museum Association
people therefore paid Apollo great respect. They
built him a magnificent temple and brought to him
treasures and beautiful things to win his favor.
Map showing the location of Delphi on the slopes of Mt. Parnassus
Delphi thus became one of the richest and most
beautiful cities in Greece.
The Greek people built the temple to Apollo quite
high on the slopes of Mount Parnassus and facing the
sea so that it could be seen for miles around. The
front of it was of shining Parian marble. A winding
The Greek Charioteer
road, called the Sacred way, led up to it, and this was
lined on both sides with treasure houses containing
money and jewels, costly weapons and armor, splen-
did garments and vases of all kinds, captured by rich
kings in war and brought as gifts to Apollo.
About 470 years before Christ lived, there was a king
in Syracuse, a Greek colony on the island of Sicily near
Italy, whose name was Hieron. When he was young
he cared only for wars and ruled his people like a
tyrant. But as he grew older he came to care less for
war and power and more for the arts and pleasures
of peace. He became the friend of writers and sculp-
tors, and if he found a man of talent whom he thought
worthy, he would give him money to live on, or bring
him to the court at Syracuse so that he could spend
his time in painting or writing or carving statues.
One of the men he thus found was a sculptor named
Calamis lived a long time at Hieron's court. He
carved especially well figures of horses, and an old
writer tells us he once made in bronze a charioteer
standing in a chariot and guiding his horses.
Hieron had a younger brother, Polyzalos, of whom
he was very proud. At his brother's command, Poly-
zalos was trained to run and jump by the great
trainers in Greece ; and, being a youth of noble birth,
he was also taught to race in the chariot, for that was
considered one of the most manly sports the son of a
king could take part in.
These and other facts have led students of history
and art to think that Calamis made the statue of the
Charioteer, that it is perhaps a portrait of Polyzalos,
and that King Hieron sent it to the temple of Delphi
as a gift to Apollo because Polyzalos had won a very
The Newark Museum Association
1 r^r? is-JLiU^^S^*"-^ ; '. I r, '*'' "7^ lc,-|
i B ' ; ^^Mt a
Map of the precinct of Apollo at Delphi. The Games were held in
the Stadium northwest of the city. The Charioteer was
found beside the Sacred Way on the upper terrace
The Greek Charioteer
important race. If you will look at the map of the city
you will see that the statue was found close to the
temple and beside the Sacred way.
Delphi was such an important city that festivals,
called the Pythian games, to which thousands came
from all parts of Greece, were held there every four
years. The games were held in honor of the god
Apollo and lasted four days. They were so important
that if a war was being waged when the date for the
games came round, a truce was declared, and any who
took part in the games were permitted to travel to and
from Delphi in safety.
On the morning of the first day a procession was
held of all the guests of honor, the foreign kings, en-
voys from the Greek states in their splendid chariots,
priests, officials and the men and boys who were to
take part in the games. All along the Sacred way up
to the temple, the doors of the treasuries were opened
and the rich treasures inside glittered in the sunlight.
In the temple sacrifices were made to the god Apollo,
to Artemis, his sister and to Leto, his mother. Here
those who were to take part in the games, swore on a
sacred urn that they were free-born and that they had
never committed a crime. Here also they drew lots
for their places in the races. Then the procession
went to the stadium, northwest of the city, where the
people were gathered, waiting for the games to begin.
On the first day musical concerts were held. Songs
were sung accompanied by flute and cithara. A con-
certo was also played describing in music the fight of
Apollo with the dragon, Pytho, the incident from which
the festival took its name.
On the second day were the gymnastic events, run-
ning, jumping, wrestling and boxing and trials of
6 The Newark Museum Association
On the third day, races on horseback and in chariots
were run. Let us go with Polyzalos on the day he is
to drive in the race.
It is early in the morning of a hot August day. Al-
ready the roads leading to the stadium are full of
hurrying men and boys for women were not allowed
to attend the games. Peddlers with their goods, jug-
glers and poets with their poems run along beside the
crowd crying their wares in the hope of making a
penny now and then.
Here and there are groups of people in chariots, en-
voys from the various states, bearing offerings to the
temple; behind them is perhaps a sick man on a litter,
coming with a gift to the god Apollo with the hope of
On horseback are the kings of the Greek states, their
horses gleaming in their rich trappings. One of these
is surely Hieron, the brother of Polyzalos, eager and
Polyzalos hurries along through the crowd, for if he
is late the servants of the judges of the race, called
the Amphictyons, will not allow him to take part. Al-
ready most of the seats are filled and still the crowds
pour in through all the entrances.
At one end, in a box high up and in view of all, the
judges in their purple robes have already taken their
places. Below them the races start and finish.
Polyzalos hastily changes his short chiton or tunic
for the long garment worn by charioteers. His ser-
vants have already harnessed the horses to the chariot
just as you see them in the illustration from a vase-
painting. The owner of the chariot is holding the
reins, the charioteer is standing behind the horses and
and two slaves are about to harness the third horse.
The Greek Charioteer
Greek chariot. From an old Greek vase painting
When all is in readiness Polyzalos drives out into
the arena, where the other charioteers are already
moving slowly around the course. Their chariots
take their places at the starting point, and await the
sound of the trumpets. As these sound, a bronze
dolphin falls from its high place near the chariots*
and an eagle, till then resting on an altar, rises into
the air with extended wings. At this sign the bar-
riers drop and the horses dash over the line. Twelve
times they must pass around the course before the
goal is reached.
We hope that Polyzalos won this race. If he did,
he was crowned with a wreath of laurel, the tree
sacred to Apollo, and a herald announced his name
and the names of his father and of his native city.
Then he was applauded by the thousands of people
from all Greece and, when he returned home, was
again honored for being a victor in the great Pythian
games and bringing fame and glory to his native city.
8 The Newark Museum Association
After all the events were finished, banquets were
held throughout the city and feasting continued far
into the night. A special banquet was held for the
victors at the town hall, at which songs were sung
about the great feats at games of former years. For
1000 years these famous festivals were regularly held
and shared in by all the Greek peoples.
A Greek poet named Pindar spent four years at
Hieron's court. He wrote four books of odes about
the great festivals of Greece and four of the odes
tell of the victories of Hieron and his horse, Phereni-
kos. These odes have come down to us and you can
read them in charming English translations.
List of Books
Home Life of the Ancient Greeks. Hugo Bliimner,
Greek Athletic Sports and Festivals. E. N. Gardiner,
Three Greek Children. A. J. Church, London, 1890.
Old Greek Education. J. P. Mahaffy, New York.
Stories of Ancient Greeks. Charles D. Shaw, Boston,
Greece. James A. Harrison, New York, 1885.
Greek History. Alice Zimmern, New York, 1908.
The Story of the Greek People. E. M. Tappan, Bos-
Stories of the Statues
4. Bartolommeo Colleoni: A Statue
The Colleoni Statue. The original bronze stands in the Campo Santi
Giovanni e Paolo in Venice. A perfect copy in bronze, executed
under the direction of the sculptor J. Massey Rhind,
was presented by a citizen to the city
of Newark, in 1916.
This picture is a reproduction of part of an engraving
by Rudolph Ruzicka.
Newark, N. J.
I J If ON IV
The Newark Museum Association \\
NOTE OF EXPLANATION
The Newark Museum Association is trying to discover
what kinds of museum objects and what kinds of museum
activities Newark likes, and needs, and will find useful,
and will use.
It believes that one of the things it can do to give pleasure
to Newarkers, and to make their lives more interesting, is to
treat some of the best things in the city, like -parks, trees,
fountains, sculptures, buildings, and industries, as if they
were parts of its own collections. Acting on this belief it
publishes this pamphlet on Newark's most beautiful sculpture,
the Colleoni, and makes the pamphlet one in the series it is
issuing on the sculptures plaster casts, and bronzes in
its own collection. In this series, called "Stories of the
Statues," have already appeared: I. The Venus of Melos;
2. The Lion Hunt; and 3. The Charioteer of Delphi.
Because the Museum Association believes it is better for the
city to interest the children in good sculpture than it is to try
to interest adults in it; and because it finds it much easier thus
to interest the former than the latter, all these stories have
been written with the intent to make them attractive to young
people. It does not surprise us to learn that many adults
have found all of them quite interesting.
The Lion Hunt, a cast of an Assyrian relief, is now at the
Belmont Avenue School. A copy in plaster of the Colleoni^
small but full of the same fiery energy which possesses the
original, is soon to go to the same school, and this is to be
followed by The Charioteer and others. In several schools,
in the next few months, will be found other beautiful and
interesting pieces of sculpture, all coming from the collection
which formerly filled a hall on the fourth floor of the library
building. To make room for other things, the museum being
much crowded in its present quarters, this modest sculpture
hall had to be dismantled. It seemed that no better use could
be found for the casts which composed it than to place them
where the young people of the city could see them every day. ,
April, /p/7- /. C. Dana, Director.
Bronze copy of the Colleoni presented to the city by a citizen of Newark
and placed in a park at the head of Clinton Avenue.
The Colleoni: One of the Two Greatest
Equestrian Statues in the World.
An equestrian statue is a statue of a man or a
woman on horseback. There are many equestri-
an statues, partly because statues are apt to
be made of generals and other cavalry officers,
whom it seems natural to put on horses, and
The horse and rider seen from the left side; from a photo-
graph of the original statue in Venice.
partly because a finely formed man sitting well
on a handsome horse is a beautiful sight. It
The horse's head; from a photograph of the statue in Venice.
stands in our minds for great physical power
skillfully controlled by great intelligence.
This Colleoni statue is considered one of the
two most excellent equestrian statues in the
Look for the reasons for so praising it.
Is the horse standing still or moving? How
do we know? What can we tell from the position
of the eyes? Of the head? The ears? Of the
tail? Is the horse breathing freely? How do we
The horse and rider seen from behind; from a photograph
of the statue in Venice.
know? Is his skin thin or thick? How do we
Every strong muscle ready to move, each hoof
striking the ground ready at once to spurn it,
the uplifted foot drawn up only the better to
fling forward, this horse, full of springing
muscles, ears up, head high, neck arched, tail
lifted, is the embodiment of strength, and agility,
the best that nature can do in creating high-
spirited, eager, graceful force.
What does the rider wear on his body? His
head? On what kind of saddle does he sit?
If he were to receive a hard thrust, how would
the saddle help him? Does he seem to be
conscious of his heavy helmet? Is he thinking
of the horse he rides? Can he control it?
How do we know that?
The helmeted and armor-covered soldier,
fixed in his box-like saddle, is so accustomed
to the movement of his steed and so used to
controlling it that he is as unconscious of its
powerful body beneath him as he is of his own.
He moves either as he chooses.
But his mind is full of something else. Look
at him from the right. From his figure and
position you will see that he is full of power
and purpose. He, too, means to go forward,
Pass behind him, and looking up you will
understand, "This is a man who does not
retreat." From the left study his face. It says
to us, "This man's forefathers thought; that
gave him his brow. They willed to do; that
gave him his steady gaze. They never yielded;
that gave him his firm jaw and mouth. He
himself has dared and done and borne until his
cheek is sunken with the coming of age, although
his body is firm and strong." Those who face
this soldier see clearly that struggle and power
have made him stern and commanding.
Look at the two together horse and rider,
warrior and steed and see how they move on
In the midst of hurried lives, full of business
or play, the people of Newark glance upward at
this rider and horse from another country
and an olden time and wonder, "Was there
ever a man like that? What is he doing here?"
The head of the rider; from a photo-
graph of the original statue.
The Italians of Newark and those who have
visited Italy know that he came from Venice.
He was an Italian soldier who died seventeen
years before Columbus discovered America.
10 THE COLLEONI
In those days each city of Italy with the land
around it and the people in it was a sovereign
state. It could make war without consulting
anybody. In this country to-day not even a
big state like New York can make war or peace;
that belongs to the Congress of the whole
United States. But these Italian cities went to
war with each other at will. And that led to
many armies. If New York or Trenton were
likely to attack Newark at any time, there
would have to be a Newark army and a general
of the Newark forces. Colleoni was a general of
forces in Venice. Shakespeare's Othello, you
remember, had the same position when Desde-
mona fell in love with him.
In those days a general could not sit down
several miles behind the trenches and order
by telephone the firing of his guns. He led his
forces. He was a fierce fighter. And in those
days a soldier was not a clerk or a salesman
enlisted for a few years. He was a soldier all
the time. One who thus spent his life in fighting
and rose to leadership must be the greatest
iighter of them all. This was Colleoni.
The strangest thing about Colleoni as a fighter
is that he was a mercenary fighter, a man who
fought for pay, a "soldier of fortune." That is
to say, he fought for the city that hired him,
not for the city of his birth, or in which he had
chosen to live. He might even fight for one
city at one time, and then accept a position
as general of the forces of the very city which he
had formerly attacked. Like a lawyer to-day,
he took up the cause of the side that hired him.
The original statue as it looks in Venice. One condition was attached
to the bequest Colleoni left to Venice that this statue of himself for
which his money was to pay, be erected on the Piazza San Marco,
the finest Square in Venice. This would be an honor never paid to any
man, and so the statue was placed in front of the school of St. Mark, called
the Scuola di San Marco.
But for the last thirty years of his life he
fought for Venice. There he had large estates,
and was very rich.
The equestrian statue of Gattamelata: this statue by Donatello,
and the Colleoni by Verocchio are said to be the two greatest equestrian
statues in the world. A small copy in bronze is owned by the Newark
Although Colleoni was haughty and fought
fiercely, he was not a cruel conqueror, destroying
the country through which he passed. And
during the last thirty years of his life, while he
served Venice alone, as general of her forces,
he spent much time in cultivating the land on
THE COLLEONI 13
the estates which Venice had given him as a
reward for his services.
He died, leaving money to Venice for use in a
war which she was then fighting, and he asked
that some of this money should be spent on a
statue of himself.
Two different sculptors were employed to
make the statue, and their admirers dispute as
to which really was responsible for its greatness.
Verocchio (Va-rok'ke-o) was the best pupil of
Donatello and of Luca della Robbia, whom we
know for his charming bambinos, or babes in
swaddling clothes. He got the order for the
statue first. His name means, the true eye.
We say, in English, verily, for truly, veracity for
truth; and we go to the oculist to have our eyes
examined. Verocchio was a goldsmith, then a
painter, then a sculptor. He is noted for a
wonderful little statue of David.
Leopardi (La-6-par-de) was an architect and
sculptor. He was an exile when Verocchio died,
having been banished for forgery; but everyone
was afraid lest the statue should be ruined if it
were touched by any but a master hand, so
Leopardi was pardoned, returned to Venice,
and completed Verocchio's work.
The friends of Verocchio say that he completed
the modeling of both horse and rider, and that
Leopardi merely cast the statue and made its
base. For statues are usually made out of clay,
by the sculptor, and then copied, sometimes in
larger size, either in stone or in metal which is
poured, when hot, into a mould, and hardened
This is the bronze statue that Verocchio made of
the shepherd lad David who slew the giant Goliath
with a sling and stone. (I Samuel; xvii). Veroc-
chio's David is young and slender, strong and full of
faith. He has conquered beasts and giants in
defense of the right. Compare him with Colleoni.
THE COLLEONI 1 5
The friends of Leopard! say that Verocchio
modeled only the horse, and made some sketches
of the rider he meant to put on it, and that
Leopardi improved the horse, made sketches
after Verocchio's plan for the rider, and modeled
both it and the pedestal completely. They say
the modeling is bolder than Verocchio's, who had
a delicate style due to his goldsmith's training.
The fact that Leopardi signed his name on the
saddle girth is regarded by his friends as proof
that he really was responsible for the whole thing;
but Verrccchio's friends say that only shows that
Leopardi was never cured of his tendency to
It is a common practice for cities to put
statues in their parks and other open spaces.
These statues are usually of great men belonging
to the country, the state or the city, or famous for
some great service to humanity. There are
statues of Washington and Lincoln in many
American cities. Newark has a statue of Seth
Boyden, of whose memory she is proud. The
Italians of New York gave the city a statue of
Columbus. Those who believe in homeopathic
medicine have put in a park in Washington,
D.C., a monument to Hahnemann who was the
founder of that method.
Generally these statues are made by the best
sculptors whom people know how to get for the
money they can pay. The statue of Lincoln in
Newark was modeled by Gutzon Borglum;
the statue of Washington by J. Massey Rhind.
Both of these sculptors are living in America.
16 THE COLLEONI
In a few cases, however, cities have put up
copies of statues in other places. In Halifax,
Nova Scotia, there is a statue of the English
Prince Albert, a copy of one in Liverpool,
England. Washington, D. C., and Nashville,
Tennessee, have statues of Andrew Jackson by
the same artist. But the practice is not usual.
Neither is it usual to put up a statue just
because of its beauty. When Liberty Enlighten-
ing the World was set up in New York harbor
she was made as beautiful as possible. But it
was Liberty, not Beauty that was wanted.
In the case of the Colleoni, Newark did not
say, "We need a statue for this park. What
shall it be?"
Indeed, after the statue was ready there was
much discussion as to the place for it.
Nor did they say, "We want to honor this man.
How shall we do it?" Only Italians or students
of history knew about Colleoni.
What they did say was, "We have a statue of
Washington, made by a modern sculptor in our
city. Let us set up here a copy of the finest
equestrian statue in the world. If no one ever
makes a better, we will have the best. If some-
one some day makes a better, we shall have
helped to make the people appreciate it, for
in looking at our Colleoni people will have been
trained in good taste."
But after all Colleoni is a good subject for
a Newark statue. One of the speakers at the
unveiling declared that it "united the vigorous,
the rich and the growing republic of the west
with the glorious memory of a republic that
THE COLLEONI 17
lasted thirteen hundred years, from the Roman
Empire to the French Revolution." More-
over, there will always be in Newark many
descendants not only of the Puritans who first
settled here, but of many nations whose people
followed, and many of these will be of Italian
blood, the blood that flowed in the veins of
Colleoni, of Verocchio and of Leopardi.
This thought that Newark should have a
Colleoni was first suggested to a citizen of
Newark at a dinner given to J. Massey Rhind
after the completion of his Washington Statue.
He liked the idea. He had lent money to a friend
who wanted to work in the mines in Africa, and
he said, "If my friend's venture turns out well,
I will put up a Colleoni with the money."
One day, in walked the friend to report that he
had made money, from a mine, and to pay a
part of what he had made to this citizen of
Newark. And so the statue was ordered.
Now war was then raging in Europe. To get
a copy of a statue in Venice at this time was
not easy. And the only mould of the statue,
in the Royal Museum at Berlin, was just as
difficult to obtain. But fortunately there was
a plaster cast, made from this Berlin mould,
in the Art Institute at Chicago.
The sculptor, Rhind, used this cast of the
statue, and copied the pediment. The Clinton
Ave. site was chosen for it, and it was set in
The International Studio, in an article about
this Newark statue says, "The Bartolommeo
Colleoni statue will make Newark a Mecca for
18 THE COLLEONI
American art lovers if a shell should chance to
destroy the glorious statue at Venice, erected
only a year after the adventurous Genoese
sailor discovered the western world, the Ameri-
can counterpart would take on a tremendous
value, not expressed in terms of money."
The original Colleoni was shown March 21,
1496; the Newark Colleoni July 26, 1916.
The original forms one of the chief attractions for
tourists from all over the world to Venice.
The Newark copy makes Newark at once one
of the treasure cities of this continent.
Books on the History of Sculpture; on the
Italian Renaissance; on Italian Art with
special reference to Sculpture; on Venice
with special reference to Colleoni.
Florentine Sculptors of the Renaissance. Bode.
Old Masters and New. Cox.
Mornings with Masters of Art. Powers.
Story of Art throughout the Ages. Reinach.
St. Mark's Rest: a,h history of Venice. Ruskin.
Stones of Venice. Ruskin.
Famous Sculpture. Singleton.
Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini. Symonds.
Italian Sculptors. Waters.
Art of the Italian Renaissance. Wafflin.
Salve Venetia; gleanings from Venetian history. Crawford.
Story of Venice. Okey.
Queen of the Adriatic, or Venice, mediaeval and modern. Waters.
Gautier. Voyage en Italic.
Childe Harold's pilgrimage. Byron.
THE COLLEONI 19
NOVELS LAID IN VENICE IN THE DAYS OF VEROCCHIO
Marietta, a maid of Venice. Crawford.
Master mosaic workers. Land.
Royal Faun of Venice. Turnbull
FOR YOUNG PEOPLE
Two books about sculptors and artists and their work:
Famous Sculpture. Barstow.
Sketches of Great Painters. Dallin.
Two stories of Venice at about the time when she made Colleoni
The Lion of St. Mark. Henty.
Caterina of Venice. In historic Girls, by Brooks.
A story of the time of General Colleoni in which the hero is an artist
and goes to Venice:
The Cloister and the Hearth. Reade.
POEMS ABOUT VENICE
On the Extinction of the Venetian Republic. Wordsworth.
To the Lion of St. Mark. Miller.
Venice. From Jacopo Sannazzaro, tr. by Addison.
Ode to Venice. Byron.
At Venice. Clough.
Venice. From Giovanni della Casa, tr. by Hemans.
Venice. From Graf von Platen, tr. by Davidson.
In my Gondola. Thornbury.
Meditative Fragments on Venice. Houghton.
Written at Venice. Houghton.
Venice. From Saverio Bettinelli, tr. by Montgomery.
Venice by Day. de Vere.
Venice in the Evening, de Vere.
The White Flag on the Lagoon Bridge at Venice. From Arnoldo
Fusinato, tr. by Howells.
To Venice. Landor.
nr,T 9 1917
Stories of the Statues
5. Egyptian Sculpture: Notes on the casts of a
few pieces in the Newark Museum.
OF THE x
OF . I
Newark, N. J.
The Newark Museum Association
An Egyptian King
This is Pharaoh, an Egyptian King. Such
statues were placed before the great tombs
of the kings in Egypt. Copies like this are
made of plaster, but the original statues were
probably carved out of hard stone, although some
Egyptian statues were of bronze or of baked
If this were a modern statue of an American,
we should know the name of the sculptor.
But in olden days, in Egypt, there were great
numbers of statues made, some of them of
enormous size, whose makers' names we know
EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE 3
The important thing about each was the
name of the statue. The spirit, or Ka, that
used to inhabit his body would come back some
day and look for its old home. It would not
find the home it lived in; that would perhaps
be cheaply built, and long since demolished.
But it would find the tomb, built during its
life-time on earth, solid and enduring, perhaps
carved out of the solid rock. And in the tomb
it would look for its mummy, or embalmed body.
Into this it would creep, and live again forever.
But if, by some mischance, the mummy were
gone and many an Egyptian Ka will miss its
mummified body when it returns because
people have bought them to put in museums-
then the Ka would look around for an image or
statue of its former self, and that would do
about as well as the mummy. The Ka need
not wander. It would have a body to live in.
This is one reason why there are so many,
many statues in the tombs of Egypt.
If an American sculptor is going to make a
statue he decides on the size. Shall it be half
size, full size, or colossal very large? A
colossal statue with us may be two or three
times life size, or it may be so large that, as in
New York's Statue of Liberty, one arm is
taller than a man. But the Egyptian statues
were often enormous. Think of the Sphinx,
over sixty feet high from breast to the top of the
Outline drawing of sculpture in relief, illustrating the very formal
method of treating the human figure which the
head. Rows and rows of these immense statues,
carved from the hardest rock, by slave labor,
can be found in Egypt to-day. One might
almost say that the Egyptians turned out statues
as our newspapers turn out comic pictures.
But its editions, though fewer, were more lasting.
Some of them have lasted five thousand years.
The American artist next decides what atti-
tude his statue shall take. As you see, the
Egyptian sculptor had no trouble about that.
That had been decided by the priests, long ago.
He must stand, or sit, or squat. He could have
one foot before the other, or keep them side
by side, but they must both be flat on the
ground, and he must bear weight on both.
He could not be bent at all, either sidewise or
forward or backward. He must hold his chin
up, keep his mouth shut, and look to the front.
His arms might hang or one might rest on his
knee and one up against his breast, as you see
in the seated King, or they might be folded.
But in any case they were stuck fast to him.
The American sculptor decides whether his
figure shall have a large or a small head, how his
hair shall hang, how he shall be dressed. These
things also were ordered for the sculptor in old
Egypt. Large ears, set high, hair alike on two
sides, head just so many times the length of
the nose, arms so many times the head, body
and legs just so long there were rules for it all,
for the statues of both men and women.
The hard materials out of which the statues
were generally carved made it necessary they
Antinous, a Roman Statue made in imitation of the Egyptian style
because Antinous died in Egypt.
should be simple, and this simplicity was soon
prescribed by these religious rules.
And yet look at them. Stiff, lean, high-
shouldered, narrow hipped, with hardly any
modeling, except at the knees, wonderfully
similar, yet somehow these Egyptians made so
many, worked so well, believed so thoroughly
that they were likely to be dwelt in by their
old souls, that they made them good portraits.
The Kas of these two kings will never make any
mistake and exchange bodies.
The Bible tells us that when a man looks in
the mirror and goes away, he straightway for-
gets what manner of man he is; but every Ka
who looks among the Egyptian statues for
his own will know, when he meets the wrong
one, like the old woman in the tale, "This is
none of I."
The skill that this indicates is wonderful.
Other nations have made queer stiff statues;
other nations have been bound by religious rules
to make them just so; other nations have gained
skill in the use of tools. But no other nation has
made statues that we would mistake for those of
Egypt, except in imitation.
Here is a statuette, a little statue, in imitation
of Egyptian style.
It is, however, a Roman statue. In what does
it resemble the Egyptian statues? How does it
differ from them?
The reason the sculptor made it in this style
is that the young man, Antinous, whom it
represents, died in Egypt. In fact, he was
drowned in the Nile.
The story is that when the Roman emperor
was traveling through Egypt, there was a
prophecy that he could only avoid a threatened
danger by the sacrifice of one whom he loved.
Now Antinous knew that the Emperor loved him
and so, to save his emperor, he drowned himself
in the Egyptian river.
Compare this with the real Egyptian statues:
the position; the legs; the arms; the feet; the
hands; the body; the back; the face.
We seldom see any sculpture nowadays that
imitates the style of Egypt, but we do often see
things decorated with Egyptian designs, such
as are shown on this page. For the Egyptians
were masters of design making.
nrr 9 1917
Stories of the Statues
6. The Rooster.
A Rooster by Louis Vidal, a French Sculptor
Newark, N. J.
The [Newark Museum Association
A - OP
Every kind of animal has a character of its
own. The rabbit is called timid, the donkey
stubborn, the lion noble, the fox clever. Part of
the aim of the animal painter or sculptor is to
set forth in his art the character of each animal
that he paints or models.
Some people love all animals, and some have
a peculiar insight into the characters of one
special kind of animal life. Rosa Bonheur, the
French painter, loved best to paint horses.
Madame Ronner painted the luxurious habits
of the aristocratic Persian cat.
Louis Vidal, a Frenchman, liked roosters-
healthy, upstanding, strutting, big -combed,
plume-tailed, strong-legged, crowing roosters.
And when we look at the swaggering fellow he
modeled we know that his maker liked him.
The arch of his neck, and the curve of his breast,
the firmness of his tread and the spring of his
tail, all tell it.
Vidal was a pupil of Barye, whose lion we all
know in bronze. He was skillful, for he has
managed, without trying to carve the details of
feathers at all, to make us sure that the breast
of this rooster is soft.
It is a good thing for those of us who cannot
go a-hunting wild game, even with the camera,
who have no zoo, and who do not often have the
circus in town, that we can see so plainly
through Vidal's eyes that a rooster may be
So may a horse, as we see at least once a year
when the horses of Newark parade. So may
the dog that we see daily on the street. So
may a cat; feed your own well, if you want to
prove it. And as for birds!
Some American animal sculptors were raised
on the western plains, or mountains, like
Borglum and Proctor; while others picked up
most of what they knew of animals in cities,
perhaps in a zoo.
Most of them got their best ideas about
putting the characters of the animal they
studied into their work from France, from the
work of such artists as the one who made this
To the true animal artist the very animal
itself seems to be hidden in the clay or stone,
or wood, and the artist's task is to get it out by
taking the useless material away and revealing
the beautiful hidden thing.
Mr. Fox, who carved the ivory elephants at
the Newark Museum, says he feels there are
elephants in the tusk he works on and that he
cuts them free! So Vidal must have felt with
his cock. Get a piece of clay and see if you can
find your favorite animal hidden in it. If you
can, you may be a sculptor yourself. Things
just as strange are happening every day.
Stories of the Statues
7. The Boy with the Thorn.
Newark, N. J.
The (Newark Museum Association
Spinario, or The Thorn
This boy has caused scholars no end of trouble.
They can't find out who made him, or when, or
who lost him, or who found him. They know
that a bronze figure like this was placed by a
Pope, named Sixtus, in a collection of statues
which he made in Rome about twenty years
before Columbus discovered America.
When Napoleon conquered Italy he carried
off the statue; but it was afterward returned.
And in Italy it has remained.
But what had happened to it before 1470?
It is supposed then to have been, at that time,
almost two thousand years old. No one knows.
You can read learned essays showing that it
must have been made at such and such a date;
as shown by the fact that the sculptors made
hair in this style, or heads of the shape of this
one. And one author fixes the date of its making
by the fact that, although the boy is pulling a
thorn from his foot which must hurt he is
not making a face over it! It seems that all
sculptured faces made over four hundred years
before Christ were calm like the face of this boy.
One story about it we know to be untrue,
but it is a good story and worth taking. It is
this: About four hundred years ago, in one of
the old wars of Rome, this shepherd boy was
sent to Rome to warn the people that the enemy
was coming, and he ran to the city with a thorn
in his foot which he never stopped to pull out
until his message was delivered. The statue
was therefore called "The Faithful One."
It is a fine thing that plaster copies can so
easily be made of the world's great statues.
For "The Faithful One" or "Spinario" is a
lovely boy, on whose beautifully modeled figure
with the curve of its bent back and bowed head
we like to gaze.
Many an American student of art who has
spent years of study and much money in learning
sculpture would give half of all his future
earnings if he could hope to be able at last to
make a figure like this.
Yet the name of the Greek sculptor is un-
known, and if the boy was the victor in some
renowned game in those early days, that, too,
is unknown. All that is** certain is that this is
The Boy With a Thorn Spinario.
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